“At the conference we have scanned this field and brought together an overview of the various methods and models in use today around the world to determine where a nuclear weapon test has taken place by means of the measurement of atmospheric radioactivity. There are other types of measurement, of course, monitoring air pollution and maintaining preparedness for nuclear accidents as we do here. That is why our discussions can embrace so many discipline when we meet like this. We have had rewarding discussions about both models and measuring systems, focusing on how they could be improved. Through this conference we have opened up an important channel of communication between different research areas,” says Anders Ringbom, Deputy Research Director at FOI.
The measurement of airborne radioactivity is carried out round the clock at FOI. The scientists here also measure the radioactivity that is constantly present in the atmosphere. Since the detection of North Korea’s nuclear weapon test in 2006, that country has carried out two similar nuclear weapon tests, in 2009 and 2013. Two of these tests were detected by the Swedish SAUNA system. The test site was then localised with the aid of meteorological models. Such models are needed for computational purposes to track air movement in order to establish where the radioactivity is coming from. The SAUNA system collects and analyses radioactive xenon in the air and thereby allows the source to be determined. A number of countries have SAUNA equipment in place but by no means all have the analysis capability.
“This is the first time that a conference has been arranged to address this topic and we hope that more will follow. We need to become better at determining whether, where and when a covert nuclear weapons test has been conducted. The more countries that have the analysis capability the better. There is not the same level of credibility if just one country accuses another of carrying out a nuclear test. If more countries can carry out the analysis there will be a stronger case. The aim is that more countries should acquire analysis facilities and that we should strive constantly to develop a still better method,” says Anders Ringbom.
SAUNA is an internationally recognised system for the measurement of airborne radioactivity. The first prototype system was developed at FOI during the year 2000 and was launched commercially in 2003. During 2006 the system made news round the world when it detected and measured radioactive xenon from a North Korean secret underground nuclear weapon test. Today the system is deployed in a dozen countries, the central data centre being located in Vienna at the headquarters of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO). The CTBTO is the organisation charged with the global monitoring of compliance with the test ban treaty.
The SAUNA system has been developed at FOI and is manufactured by the company Scienta SAUNA Systems AB which owns the commercial rights while FOI carries out international research assignments and measurements with its own SAUNA equipment.