Managing the environmental and social footprint

Managing water dependency:
The joint need for water in operations, military as well as refugee and IDP camps, may cause severe pressure on fragile hydrological systems. Environmental intelligence and vulnerability assessments facilitates planning and coordination of mitigation the impact on key water assets in a mission area.

















The energy-environment security nexus:
Conventional fossil fuels come at a cost, price rises and fluctuates and fuel supply security such as of convoy attack linger. Renewable energy is safe and cost effective, permanent, provides energy locally and furthermore does not cause pollution problems that may create conflict with host populations as well as costly clean up activities.


Utilizing the benefits of proper waste management:
Poor waste management in operations has proved to be costly as well as counter to mission security and staff health. FOI provides decision support and assesses modularity, scalability, robustness, force health implications, energy consumption and climate adaptation potential of waste management alternatives.



  • Environmental guidebook for military operationsexternal link (.pdf 5 Mb)
  • Base camp water management: challenges and way forward, towards sustainable supply practices. FOI-R--2848--SE
  • Base camp solid waste mangement: challenges and way forwards towards sustainable management practices. FOI-R--2849--SE
  • Summary report on the NATO PfP Workshop on Environmental Security Concerns in Peace Support and Crisis Management Operations, Umeå, Sweden, November 25-26, 2008. FOI-R--2685--SE
  • Greening peace operations - policy and practice. FOI-R--3112--SE
  • Managing Unintended Consequences of Peace Support Operations. FOI-R--2916--SE
  • Waleij Annica, Lewis Jeff (2012) in United Nations Environmental Programme (2012): Greening the Blue Helmets - Environment, Natural Resources and UN Peacekeeping Operations May 2012. FOI-S--4024--SE link
  • Liljedahl, B., Waleij, A., Simonsson, L. (2012) What Swedish Support to International Crises Management can Learn from the Cholera Outbreak in Haitiexternal link, in Emma Skeppström, Stefan Olsson and Åke Wiss (eds.) Strategic Outlook 2012. FOI-R--3349--SE.
  • Lewis, J., Liljedahl, B. (2010). Groundwater Surveys in Developing Regions. Air, Soil and Water Research. Vol. 3, pp 1-10 link
  • Waleij, A., Normark, M. (2011). Natural Resource and Conflict: The Gap Between Policy and Practice, in Jerker Hellström, Mikael Eriksson and Niklas Granholm (eds.) Strategic Outlook. FOI-R--3210--SE
  • Waleij, A., Liljedahl, B. (2009) "The Military as Environmental Steward in Peace Operations". Pearson Papers Volume 12, 2009. FOI-S--3282--SE link
  • Waleij, A., Göran sson Nyberg, A., Stricklin, D., Sandström, B. and A. Hånell-Plamboeck (2011). Feasibility Study for Human Biomonitoring in Peace Operations. FOI-R--3235--SE
  • Liljedahl, B., Sandström, B., Sundström, S., Edlund, C., Nyström, C., Waleij, A. (2009). ”Medical and environmental intelligence in peace operations”. Pearson Papers Volume 12, 2009. link


Publications (only in swedish):

  • Liljedahl, B., Waleij, A., Simonsson, L. (2012). Vad kan svenskt stöd till internationell krishantering lära av kolerautbrottet i Haiti? i Emma Skeppström, Stefan Olsson och Åke Wiss (eds.). Strategisk utblick 2012. FOI-R--3437--SE.
  • Christina Edlund, Sebastian Stalgrim, Camilla E Andersson (2011). Avveckling av Camp Victoria Kosovo. Miljöaspekter under avvecklingsprocessen. FOI--R--3254--SE
  • Jan Sjöström, Christina Edlund, Rune Berglind, Håkan Wingfors, Annica Waleij, Ulf Qvarfort, Per Leffler, Åsa Scott Andersson, Lars Hägglund (2008). Provtagningsstrategier för försvarsspecifik miljöriskbedömning.external link FOI-R--2497--SE
  • Waleij, A., Normark, M. (2011). Naturresurser driver allt fler konflikter - hög tid för Sverige att agera, i Jerker Hellström, Mikael Eriksson och Niklas Granholm (eds.) Strategisk Utblick. FOI-R--3208--SE