Miljökonsekvenser av krig och konflikter


  • Waleij Annica
  • Liljedahl Birgitta
  • Edlund Christina
  • Lindblad Anders
  • Sjöström Jan
  • Ahlberg Mats

Publish date: 2005-01-01

Report number: FOI-R--1864--SE

Pages: 72

Written in: English


  • Environmental effects
  • environmental consequences
  • war
  • conflict
  • international operations


Negative effects on the environment as a result of military activities can occur during various phases. The following study (Part 1), giving examples from Vietnam, Afghanistan, Iraq, the Balkans, Chechnya and Africa, is an attempt to make an unbiased overview of possible environmental consequences of conflicts rising from military operations. A gap in knowledge has been observed; the lack of background information regarding what the environmental situation was like before the actual conflict, thus making it difficult to exactly assess the consequences brought about by the conflict and those resulting from unsufficient environmental protection before the conflict. Moreover, it is difficult to find examples in the literature in which one has successfully separated effects on the environment from the humanitarian ones. Systematized risk assessments models adapted to conflict and crisis affected areas are thus required, such models fully illustrating the environmental consequences of a conflict. International operations are a growing Swedish area of responsibility engaging both civilian and military personnel. The early planning stages should therefore involve careful consideration of the environment in the recipient country. Today, there are a large amount of documents whose purpose is protection of the environment in the event of an armed conflict, meaning that the Armed Forces - as early as possible in the planning stages of a new operation - must consider the environmental effect, before as well as after one´s own operation. Part 2 of the study will further explore these issues.