From CGF to HBR and Operation area analysis


  • Sten-Åke Nilsson
  • Johan Pelo
  • Mikael Lundin
  • Petter Ögren

Publish date: 2009-01-09

Report number: FOI-R--2627--SE

Pages: 55

Written in: Swedish


  • M&S
  • CGF
  • computer generated forces
  • simulation
  • cognitive modelling
  • HBR
  • architectures
  • MSI
  • OneSAF
  • VV&A


The area of "Computer Generated Forces" (CGF) is based on many sciences such as computer science, M&S, AI and physics. The concept of CGF has in recent years often been replaced by the concept of HBR, Human Behavior Representation, to better incorporate the human characteristics of the players. To do this requires knowledge in psychology and cognitive science. This has broadened the definition of CGF, and shows that this technology can be used in many contexts where it is not primarily intended to insert a "battle force". The CGF project at FOI has in recent years identified an interest and trend shift from the uses that could be detected during the CGF study in 2001, to nearby areas that demonstrate somewhat different and new needs of synthetic actors. This shift brings along implications for research in human behavior representation (HBR). The need for the use of synthetic actors in a larger scale, and the sharp questions, has grown rapidly. The production of synthetic actors to meet those needs has not increased in correspondence with needs. The knowledge of architectures and computational design of the frameworks and libraries for synthetic actors need to be supplemented with an understanding of how the production process should be designed to meet those needs. The increasing focus of the Swedish Armed Forces to participate in international peacekeeping operations requires knowledge of the importance of cultural and social differences and effects. Today these are very important to be able to demonstrate in education and training, both in terms of impact on cooperation as well as the effects it has in terms of contact with people in a field of action. The development of a "CGF with human characteristics" or within HBR is depending on that many people with different skills can work together. FOI is well equipped for research in HBR, because there exist skills in all the above mentioned sciences. Knowledge and understanding of the importance of social and cultural factors are of immediate interest to forces that are to operate in an area. Anyone who intends to describe these elements in a simulation model needs a theoretical basis for describing how these factors affect behavior. To be useful for the Swedish Armed Forces for training, education, and after-analysis, modelling requires further research efforts to find a scientific basis upon which models for military purposes can be based.