Rotten democracy - Conspiracy propaganda, racism and violence


  • Hannah Pollack Sarnecki
  • Anna Lioufas
  • Mathilde Jarlsbo

Publish date: 2023-06-21

Report number: FOI-R--5473--SE

Pages: 263

Written in: Swedish


  • hostility towards the existing democratic system
  • conspiracy propaganda
  • racism
  • misogyny
  • hatred
  • threats
  • extremism and violence


This report describes the organizations and networks that together constitute what is referred to as anti-democratic extremist milieus. These milieus are multifaceted and heterogeneous, but the actors within them are onnected through various aspects of ideology. The organizations and networks analysed in the report aim to abolish or undermine liberal democracy by, for example, trying to create general political chaos in society through disinformation and conspiracy propaganda, but also through violence and threats of violence. In the report, we examine the relationship between rhetoric and the risk of acts of violence. One key finding is that patterns of composition, as well as the organization and activities of these groups, have undergone change in recent years. In Sweden, several violent acts related to these milieus have occurred, including for example, a number of school attacks and the murder in Almedalen in 2022. Some of the actors in these milieus want to change society with violence, others do not - but even those who do not see violence as a means for social change, can under certain conditions inspire others to commit violence. Based on the analysis made in the report, the authors conclude that effective methods to counter this violence requires in-depth knowledge about the connection between violence and the ideologies that inspire and underpin it.Since the publication of this report, minor editorial changes have been made. These have not affected the content.