Cognitive overview


  • Kylesten Birgitta
  • Lindoff Jenny
  • Hasewinkel Håkan
  • Andersson Peter
  • Carlander Otto
  • Fors Karin
  • Hedström Johan
  • Kindström Mattias
  • Lindahl Björn
  • Lif Patrik

Publish date: 2004-01-01

Report number: FOI-R--1436--SE

Pages: 41

Written in: Swedish


The Swedish Armed Forces is increasing its international participation, often in urban environments. Thus, there is a need for a multi-dimensional representation of the environment. However, the operational picture must not become too complex. Therefore it is important to investigate which information is needed at the tactical level and how it should be represented in the operational picture. The purpose of the project was to investigate how the traditional operational representation should be developed. This was done by studying how 3D, both visually and auditory, can change the operational picture and evaluate its effect on decision-making. The main research question for the project is: To what extent is visual and auditory 3D-information useful to a decision-maker in complex situations? The project has used a research-tool called CoMap (developed by the project) in which it is easy to present different types of visual information in 2D and 3D. The project has conducted both field-studies and laboratory experiments with focus on the usefulness of 2D and 3D-information on a tactical level. The results show that 3D-sound is a better way to present complex auditory information to C2-operators than stereo. Visual 3D-information is good in some situations but not always. The operators only uses visual 3Dinformaiton 10% of the time, the rest of the time the use 2D. There is a need to investigate when and why 2D and 3D is used. It would also be interesting to explore how knowledge about decision-makers mental models can be used to develop good synthetic environment models.