Operational Effectiveness and UN Resolution 1325 - Practices and Lessons from Afghanistan


  • Johan Tejpar
  • Louise Olsson
  • Birgith Andreassen
  • Joseph Hoenen
  • Synne Holan
  • Sophie Kesselaar
  • Björg Skotnes
  • Johanna Valenius

Publish date: 2009-05-13

Report number: FOI-R--2760--SE

Pages: 154

Written in: English


  • UN Resolution 1325
  • operational effectiveness
  • women and men


On December 12, 2007, the North Atlantic Council decided to develop common concepts and a Policy Directive on UN Resolution 1325. As part of this process, eight independent experts from four countries have condudted this study, identifying best practices and lessons learned from the implementation of Resolution 1325 in NATO´s Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) in Afghanista. Practices and lessons relate both to effectiveness and the process to integrate Resolution 1325 in operations. An analytical framework has been developed and applied on five different PRTs; the Dutch PRT in Tarin Kowt, the Italian PRT in Herat, The New Zealand PRT in Bamyan, the Norwegian PRT in Meymaneh and the Swedish PRT in Mazar-e Sharif. The analytical framework is based on a model in which the content of Resolution 1325 is broken down into representation (maile and female participation) and integration (the use of the content of Resolution 1325 in the process to achieve a desired output). These themes are analyzed internally (how NATO Operations are organized) and externally(how Operations address the situation in the area of responsibility to obtain the desired output).. Using this model, a set of work areas are identified and analyzed. When analyzing the work areas in the PRTs, it showed that the awareness of Resolution 1325 and of women´s and men´s diffeerent security situation and needs varied. However, PRT personnel agreed that a substantial part of the Resolution´s content is, or could be, helpful in their day-to-day operations. Examples given include: having more female soldiers to better reach the local population and collect intelligence (Meymaneh), having expert support in the planning of operations (Mazar-e sharif), better handling issues of gener-based violence (Banyan), better addressing women in CIMIC-projects (Tarin Kowt) and having women to better handle force protection issues (Herat). It was also apparent that the leadership, supported by expert functions, plays a crucial part to drive change towards a complete integration of Resolution 1325. To fully integrate Resolution 1325 in NATO Operations, three principle actions are identified: These are 1) use a comprehensive strategy to integrate Resolution 1325; 2) hold commanders accountable for progress, and 3) establish expert functions to enhance integrations. These actions are specified in the expert group´s policy recommendations which were handled to NATO and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in May, 2009.