Quality-based Development of C2 Systems: Methods and Principles


  • Niklas Hallberg
  • Nina Lewau
  • Joachim Hansson
  • Helena Granlund
  • Susanna Nilsson
  • Jonas Hermelin
  • Henrik Karlzén

Publish date: 2011-12-31

Report number: FOI-R--3358--SE

Pages: 89

Written in: Swedish


  • Systems development
  • quality based
  • process development
  • requirements engineering
  • modeling


Quality-based systems development is about developing systems that are of high quality and to do so as cost effectively as possible. This is a goal strived for in all kinds of systems developments. To succeed with quality-based development and achieve this goal several approaches are used in different areas of development. This report describes seven approaches to achieve quality in the development of systems: (1) Lean, (2) Software Product Line Engineering (SPLE), (3) Six Sigma, (4) Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), (5) Goal Oriented Requirements Engineering (GORE), (6) quality assurance of requirements, and (7) the physics of notation. All of these approaches intend to promote quality in systems development. The goal of Lean is to make development as efficient as possible, by reducing activities that do not contribute to the quality of the to-be system. SPLE has been developed with the aim to improve and streamline the development of software by creating a suite of programs where the same components are used by several applications. Instead of develop new items the developers are able to bootstrap new configurations of the system by reuse. GORE is a broad approach that focuses on goal-oriented systems development and there are a variety of methods and notations in the context of GORE. In addition to these approaches, the report also describes approaches that do not have as its main focus to shape the actual development process, but that has a comprehensive focus on quality. Of these, Six Sigma focuses on monitoring and measuring the quality of development, while CMMI is a standard way to measure how well organizations succeed in development. This report also describes a method to study the development process in terms of efficiency and quality by reviewing and quality assure the requirements that are the initial values of system development. An important topic in systems development is the notations used to model and describe the systems and processes. Physical principles for how modelling notations can be visualized more cognitively effective are discussed in the report. These approaches are all potentially of interest to the Swedish Armed Forces, and after adjustment possible to embrace in part or in whole. What approaches and in what form that would serve the Swedish Armed Forces are, however, the basis for further work.