Efficient acquisition - Strategy, organisation and defence industry among Nordic Countries


  • Per Olsson
  • Peter Nordlund

Publish date: 2017-09-12

Report number: FOI-R--4452--SE

Pages: 42

Written in: Swedish


  • Nordic countries
  • defence
  • cooperation possibilities
  • materiel
  • procurement


The purpose of this report is to outline differences and similarities between the materiel supply strategies, organisations and defence industries of Sweden, Finland, Norway and Denmark. It is also to make decision makers and other relevant actors dealing with materiel supply questions aware of these. The purpose is also to outline which consequences the differences and similarities may have for future cooperation possibilities between the countries. The countries' materiel supply strategies demonstrate differences as well as similarities. Sweden has identifies two essential security interests while Finland emphasises security of supply and the capability to maintain its systems. Norway, and to a larger extent Denmark, emphasises interoperability with NATO. Military capability has the highest priority among all the countries. But this also means that capability specifications must display similarities in order for common procurement to be successful. All countries also strive for cost efficiency, which can create preconditions for cooperation. But at the same time, some countries' procurement of available or used equipment can limit the cooperation possibilities surrounding newly developed and untested systems. The countries' organisational structure are relatively similar, but some differences still exist. Authority and decision making regarding amount limits differ between the countries, which is important to take into consideration with regards to cooperation. Even practical problems such as differences in budget- and life cycles can constitute challenges in connection to common procurement. The Nordic countries' defence industries differ in terms of size, focus and which types of systems they produce. The defence industry in Sweden is significantly larger than those in the other Nordic countries. These differences means that there is little competition between the countries, which can make cooperation easier. At the same time, this means that possibilities for joint production and cost sharing may be limited. A lack of understanding of the countries' similarities and differences can lead to ill-advised cooperation that in turn can have negative consequences for military capability, cost and lead time. An increased understanding on the other hand can serve to improve conditions for and results of cooperation within materiel supply between the Nordic countries.