Training value for all! Live Virtual Constructive for effective air combat training


  • Sanna Aronsson
  • Henrik Artman
  • Mikael Mitchell
  • Robert Ramberg
  • Rogier Woltjer

Publish date: 2020-01-30

Report number: FOI-R--4860--SE

Pages: 49

Written in: Swedish


  • Live Virtual Constructive training (LVC-T)
  • air combat training
  • flight training
  • scenario design
  • training value


This report describes the research project that is being implemented to apply and adapt LVC, a training concept that integrates real aircraft (Live), manned flight simulators (Virtual) and artificial (computer-generated) agents (Constructive), into a Swedish context, in order to improve training and evaluation of performance and ability in future air combat training. The project emphasizes the importance of achieving good training value both for pilots in live aircraft and for pilots in manned simulators. Training value can be described as the added value (increased skills, experience and/or knowledge) that fighter pilots (in live aircraft and in manned simulators) gain from participating in training that includes real air combat training (L), simulated air combat training (V) and artificial agents (C). To investigate LVC as a training concept and the specific training value of LVC training, three activities were carried out in 2019: 1) A literature review of scientific studies and results on LVC and its training effect. The results show that research and evaluation of LVC has mainly focused on technical aspects that enable LVC, rather than on training value in LVC training. Examples of initiatives and research on training value exist but are comparatively less well represented in the LVC context. A preliminary theoretical approach with an educational framework for LVC-training is proposed. 2) Workshops with fighter pilots to explore a) training challenges that LVC can remedy and solve, b) training value in LVC training, and c) design of LVC training scenarios. Results show that the design of training scenarios will be central to ensuring that both fighter pilots in live aircraft and in simulators receive good training value. Designing a scenario includes assigning tasks to the various L, V and C entities in a scenario. 3) Planning of an experimental study (White-Wizard-of-Oz) at FLSC (Swedish Air Force Combat Simulation Center) where fighter pilots in simulators fly a scenario based on the results of the workshops, which have been designed to explore training value for pilots in both Live and Virtual training environments.