Civil Defence: A Literature Review


  • Fredrik Lindgren

Publish date: 2015-12-09

Report number: FOI-R--4163--SE

Pages: 51

Written in: Swedish


  • Civil defence
  • heightened alert
  • total defence
  • contingency
  • planning
  • literature review


This review of research publications and study reports in the area of civil defence and heightened alert basically shows that in a large part of the area, no current research is available. The majority of reports included in this review was published in the former half of the examined timeframe (1980- 2015). Almost 90% of the publications included in this overview are more than ten years old. As the Swedish society has changed in many respects since previous studies were conducted, there is a great need to evaluate the relevance of previously conducted research in today's society. There is also a strong need to evaluate the relevance of research in related areas, such as crisis management and human behaviour in emergencies, for the area civil defence and to what extent conclusions and results from related research areas can be transferred into wartime conditions. Among the gaps in knowledge that are pointed out in the analysed reports are civil defence in a broader social context, issues of control and management (including responsibilities and incentives for different actors in society to engage in civil defence activities), societal aspects of civil defence, development of individual societal functions during war, people's behaviour during war and the relationship between the official functions and the citizen during war. Almost no research has been specifically devoted to issues concerning society's potential to contribute to the capability of the Armed Forces in times of heightened alert.